Brain Injury

Brain Injury

There are two basic types of brain injury, closed head injury (CHI) and open head injury (OHI). CHI is usually caused by rapid acceleration and deceleration of the head, during which the brain in whipped back and forth, thus bouncing off the inside of the skull. The stress of this rapid movement pulls apart nerve fibers, and causes damage to the activated system of neuro-fibers which send out messages to all parts of the body. This type of injury often occurs as a result of motor vehicle crashes.

OHI is a visible injury which may be the result of an accident, a gunshot wound, or a variety of other outside factors. OHI differs from CHI in that the injury is usually located at a focal point in the brain; thus very specific problems will result. For example, the individual may have difficulties with forming speech, but show no problem with writing the same words on paper.

Finally, cardiac arrest, stroke, accidents such as drowning, etc. all cause anoxia (loss of oxygen to the brain), and thus may result in brain injury. In these cases, all of the brain cells may be affected. Thus there may be a change in the individual’s behavior and personality.


Advocates’ Brain Injury Services 
Offers range of residential services for adults with traumatic and acquired brain injuries. Includes a continuum of residential services, vocational services and evidence-based rehabilitation. Email program for more information.
Offer active treatment to adults who have Traumatic or Acquired Brain Injury who are living in the community.
One Clarks Hill, Suite 305
Framingham, MA 01702
Phone: 508-628-6300

Brain Injury Association, Inc. (BIA) 
Mission is to advance brain injury prevention, research, treatment, and education and to improve the quality of life for all people affected by brain injury.
3057 Nutley Street #8
Fairfax, VA 22031
Phone: 703-761-0750
Helpline: 800-444-6443

Brain Injury Association of Massachusetts (BIA-MA) 
Provides support and resources to brain injury survivors and families through education and training, advocacy and prevention programs
30 Lyman St, Suite 10
Westboro, MA 01581
Phone: 508-475-0032
Toll Free: 800-242-0030

  • BIA – MA West
    Provides information resources, support groups, and informal counseling to individuals with brain injuries, families and professionals in the Berkshires, Pioneer Valley and Amherst / Northampton areas.
    180-C Elm Street
    Pittsfield, MA 01201
    Phone: 413-443-0200
    Toll Free: 888-554-5553

Brain Injury Recovery Network 
Provides practical, actionable advice for brain injury survivors and families.
840 Central Avenue
Carlisle, OH 45005
Phone: 877-810-2100

Brain Trauma Foundation (BTF) 
Mission to improving TBI patient outcomes worldwide by developing best practice guidelines, conducting clinical research, and educating medical professionals and consumers.
1999 S. Bascom Avenue
Suite 1040
Campbell, CA 95008
Phone: 408-369-9735

Neuro-Rehab Management 
An independent case management company specializing in providing services to individuals with neurological impairments. We work with individuals who have sustained a brain injury due to an accident, illness, or other neuromuscular disability, such as spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis. We also work with individuals with multiple disabilities.
800 West Cummings Park, Suite 4950
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone: 781-979-0018
Contact form:

Head Injury Info 
Information line for people with head injuries and their families
Brain Injury Resource Center
P.O.BOX 84151
Seattle, WA 98124-5451
Phone: 206-621-8558

MRC Community Based Services  
Provides community support and services for individuals with brain injuries (BI) and a variety of disabilities in order for them to live as independent as possible.
600 Washington Street
Boston, MA 02111
Phone: 1-800-223-2559

Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Waivers 
Two home and community-based services waivers to help Medicaid-eligible persons with ABI move to the community. If you live in a nursing home or chronic or rehabilitation hospital and have an ABI, you may want to apply for one of the waivers. Applications for the ABI Waiver may be submitted at any time. Phone: 866-281-5602

Brain Injury Rehabilitation Program – Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital  
Provides state-of-the-art rehabilitative care for adults and children who are recovering from an acquired brain injury as a result of traumatic causes (such as an accident) or non-traumatic causes
300 First Avenue
Boston, MA, 02129
Phone: 617-952-5350

Supportive Living Inc.
Creates long-term housing options for people who have sustained a brain injury.
400 West Cummings Park, Suite 6100
Woburn, MA 01801
Phone: 781-937-3199

Other Information:

BrainLine Anger Following a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) 
Support for TBI survivors and family members.

Virtual Support Groups – Brain Injury Association

Seeking support online can be very helpful. Whether you are an individual living with a brain injury or a caregiver, it helps to know you are not alone.

Brain Injury Network 
Advocacy by and for People with ABI (Acquired Brain Injury)

Brain Injury Resource Center 
Brain injury facts, frequently asked questions and toolkit.

Traumatic Brain Injury Survival Guide 
Online book for TBI survivors.

TBI Basics – BrainLine
Offers resource directory, brain injury topics, personal stories and TBI basics.

Fact Sheet last updated on: 2/14/2023

Disclaimer: INDEX is pleased to provide you this information. Please note,  this information is not comprehensive, nor is it intended to take the place of professional advice. We encourage you to check other resources of such information. No endorsement by the University of Massachusetts Chan Medical School,,  INDEX, or affiliates, should be inferred. We reserve the right to remove, to modify, or to add any information at any time, for any reason, and without notice.

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